TitleTargeted delivery of microbial metabolite, urolithin A protects from chemically (DSS or TNBS) induced colitis in pre-clinical models
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSingh R, Hegde B, Von Baby B, Sadeep C, Kotla N, Chandrasekar B, Marepally S, Bodduluri H, Vemula PK, Jala VR
JournalThe Journal of Immunology

Epidemiological data suggests that consumption of diets rich in phytochemicals are protective in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, the beneficial effects are not uniform among individuals and attributed to variations in gut microbiota, and altered capacity to generate certain metabolites. Urolithin A (UroA) (3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one) is a microbial metabolite, derived from ellagic acid and ellagitannins, major poly phenolic components in berries and pomegranates. Here, we examined therapeutic applications of UroA and mechanisms of action in IBDs. Our studies suggested that UroA significantly reduced LPS induced inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-12) as well as ROS production in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), dendritic and THP1 cells. Most importantly, UroA also reduced LPS induced systemic inflammation in mouse models. Next, we examined therapeutic applications of UroA in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced, 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis models. Treatment with UroA significantly reduced both acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis as well as TNBS induced colitis in mouse models. Most importantly, delivery of UroA utilizing inflammation targeting oral nano-particles (single treatment regimen) effectively mitigated the colitis in both models. In summary, these results highlight even presence of single microbial metabolite at right location at right time will have significant beneficial effects to protect from adverse inflammatory activities.