Omicron infection increases IgG binding to spike protein of predecessor variants.
|Omicron infection increases IgG binding to spike protein of predecessor variants.
|Year of Publication
|Mahalingam G, Periyasami Y, Arjunan P, Subaschandrabose RKumar, Mathivanan TVenthan, Mathew RSusan, Devi KRamya, Premkumar PSamuel, Muliyil J, Srivastava A, Moorthy M, Marepally S
|J Med Virol
|2022 Dec 22
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 transmission in India in 2020-2022 was driven predominantly by Wild (Wuhan-Hu-1and D614G), Delta, and Omicron variants. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infections on the humoral immune response and cross-reactivity to spike proteins of Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, C.1.2., and Omicron.
OBJECTIVES: Residual archival sera (N=81) received between January 2020 and March 2022 were included. Infection status was inferred by a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and/or serology (anti-N and anti-S antibodies) and sequencing of contemporaneous samples (N=18) to infer lineage. We estimated the levels and cross-reactivity of infection-induced sera including Wild, Delta, Omicron as well as vaccine breakthrough infections (Delta and Omicron).
RESULTS: We found ~2-fold increase in spike-specific IgG antibody binding in post-Omicron infection compared to the pre-Omicron period, whilst the change in pre- and post-Delta infections were similar. Further investigation of Omicron-specific humoral responses revealed primary Omicron infection as an inducer of cross-reactive antibodies against predecessor variants, in spite of weaker degree of humoral response compared to Wuhan-Hu-1 and Delta infection. Intriguingly, Omicron vaccine-breakthrough infections when compared with primary infections, exhibited increased humoral responses against RBD (7.7-fold) and Trimeric S (Trimeric form of spike protein) (34.6-fold) in addition to increased binding of IgGs towards previously circulating variants (4.2 - 6.5-fold). Despite Delta breakthrough infections showing a higher level of humoral response against RBD (2.9-fold) and Trimeric S (5.7-fold) compared to primary Delta sera, a demonstrably reduced binding (36-49%) was observed to Omicron spike protein.
CONCLUSIONS: Omicron vaccine breakthrough infection results in increased intensity of humoral response and wider breadth of IgG binding to spike proteins of antigenically-distinct, predecessor variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
|J Med Virol